Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is considered the father of modern realism in the theatre, though he wrote in a number of dramatic genres. Ibsen’s twenty-five plays include some of the theatre’s greatest works (A Doll’s House, Hedda Gabler). The break from society’s moral standards evident in A Doll’s House shocked the audience at its 1879 premiere. To get the play produced in Germany the following year, Ibsen was forced to rewrite the ending where it was implied Nora and her three children did not leave. Today, this alternate ending can only be found in the footnotes of the modern edition. Ibsen’s careful use of psychological realism with internal characterisation and motivation has influenced playwriting to this day. – Justin Cash
Henrik Ibsen Plays PDF
Henrik Ibsen Biographies
Detailed biographical essay from the Ibsen Society of America on most of Henrik Ibsen’s plays.
A useful overview of the stages in his career and various writing styles evident in Henrik Ibsen plays.
Wikipedia entry on Henrik Ibsen and his life, influences, and writing career.
Biography of Henrik Ibsen from Encyclopedia Britannica.
Resources from The Drama Teacher on the conventions of realism and naturalism in the theatre.
Royal Theatre, Copenhagen
Analysis of Ibsen’s Works
Useful collection of historical press reviews from the premiere of A Doll’s House in Denmark, 1879.