The naturalistic theatre movement emerged in the mid 19th century and was first introduced by French novelist, critic and playwright Emile Zola in the preface to his novel Thérèse Raquin (1867). Naturalism demanded a slice of life authenticity in every aspect of production and is not to be confused with realism. Naturalistic dramas explored the concept of scientific determinism where characters were shaped by their given circumstance and controlled by external forces such as hereditary and social environment. Characters in naturalistic plays were often lower class portraying sordid events and the more mundane aspects of everyday life. It is perhaps no surprise that naturalism in the theatre was short-lived.