75 Absorbing Poor Theatre Resources

Polish theorist and practitioner Jerzy Grotowski (1933–1999) is today best known for his poor theatre form, The Laboratory Theatre and the tiny Theatre of 13 Rows in regional Poland. But his poor theatre concept and practice were just one of many phases in a career spanning four decades. Much of Grotowski’s work with actors was never performed, and if it was, before modest-sized audiences. Poor theatre advocated the elimination of the excesses of theatre – no sets, few props, basic lighting and nondescript costumes. His was a holy and ritualistic theatre of reduction, where only the actor remained. – Justin Cash

Poor Theatre Resources

Jerzy Grotowski Biographies

An extensive biography of Jerzy Grotowski and the distinct phases of his work over several decades.

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Encyclopedia.com biography of Grotowski and his work, outlining the principles of his actor training program.

Obituary of sorts from theatre academic Richard Schechner on the passing of Jerzy Grotowski in 1999. This offers a great insight into the man and his work (from TDR – The Drama Review).

Biography of Jerzy Grotowski from the Grotowski Institute, Poland.

Jerzy Grotowski biography and career outline from Wikipedia.

Brief Jerzy Grotowski biography from Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Phases of Grotowski’s Work

1959-1969 | Theatre of Productions

Poor theatre phase, Theatre of the 13 Rows, Akropolis (1962), The Constant Prince (1965), Apocalypsis cum Figuris (1968).

1969-1978 | Paratheatre

Exercises, improvisations and experiments without an audience, work on the self.

1976-1982 | Theatre of Sources

Period of self-discovery examining the sources of tradition and ritual via exposure in India, Mexico, Haiti and other countries, at the same time avoiding communist martial law in Poland.

1983-1992 | Objective Drama

Artistic-research-teaching phase at the University of California on actor training aimed at eradicating blocks and obstructions in the actor.

1991-1999 | Art as Vehicle

Continued research and actor training at the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski at Pontedera, Italy. Art became a vehicle which allowed the actor to obtain another level of perception.

Actor Training and Conventions

An outline of the conventions and techniques of Grotowski’s work including movement, staging, text, actor-audience relationship, quotes, acting and characterisation from The Drama Teacher website.

Fantastic resource website devoted to Grotowski and his theatre, with video clips, terminology, productions, audio, research, image galleries, and more.

Poor Unfortunate Theater: Crash Course Theater #48

Excellent glossary of terms, phrases, people and titles connected to Grotowski and his work.

Excellent interview with a university academic and author of works on Grotowski discussing various aspects of Grotowski’s work over his lifetime, including his influences, major productions, connections with Antonin Artaud, stage design, and more.

Physical Training at Odin Teatret, 1972
Grotowski’s training exercises at Odin Teatret, Denmark, 1972.

Lee Strasberg on Poor Theatre – An excellent essay, detailing Lee Strasberg’s definitions of acting. Includes a useful section on performance styles outlining Grotowski’s Poor Theatre.

Overview of Grotowski’s influence on world theatre in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Article discussing the difference between spectacle and special effects in theatre and how Grotowski successfully created a spectacle in his work without any special effects at all.

Jerzy Grotowski interview Wywiad z Jerzym Grotowskim
Interview with Jerzy Grotowski.

A wonderful first-hand account of a Polish actress who worked in Grotowski’s ensemble in the Theatre of the 13 Rows, Opole, Poland, describing working with him in the original production of Akropolis.

Fascinating two-part podcast on Jerzy Grotowski and his work interviewing Thomas Richards, the co-founder of his work centre in Pontedera, Italy, and Paul Allain, Grotowski researcher and academic.

Easy to understand explanation of the relevance of Grotowski and his techniques to today’s actors.

Ryszard cieslak interview. Jerzy Grotowski's Actor. Theatre Traning.
Interview and actor training exercises.

Rare series of image galleries of Grotowski productions from the late 1950s to late 1970s.

Extensive encyclopaedia of terms, people and titles related to Grotowski and his work. Great for the Grotowski scholar who wishes to deepen their understanding of Grotowski’s principles.

Through the lens of one theatre ensemble and their dramatic work, this essay discusses the impact of using Grotowski’s techniques, such as psychophysical training, his plastiques and other exercises, to find the internal core at the centre of the actor.

Peter Brook’s account of the “Holy Theatre”, like that of Grotowski’s, in his seminal 1968 text The Empty Space.

Jerzy Grotowski "List z Opola" (Letter From Opole) [English Subtitles]
Letter from Opole. Film about Grotowski’s early training programs.

Interview discussing the use of Grotowski’s “plastiques” and “corporeals” in physical theatre work.

Pillory Theater Interview with a member of a theatre company using Grotowski’s techniques.

Programme from the Grotowski Institute, Poland, which offers a synopsis of several films connected to Grotowski and his work.

Excellent collection of historical videos demonstrating Grotowski’s actor training techniques.

ISTA Copenaghen, Improvisations for Jerzy Grotowski, 1996
Improvisations before Jerzy Grotowski, 1996.

Owen Daly Grotowski’s set of acting principles.

Article about the actor’s body and the use of Grotowski’s plastiques.

A personal account of how Grotowski’s principles and methods have positively affected an actor.

Explanation of corporeal mime, a technique Grotowski used in his actor training.

Exploration of what constitutes corporeal mime from Wikipedia.

A brief explanation from the Grotowski Institute of the use of corporeal code in the physical training of martial arts.

Article outlining various scandals in Polish theatre, briefly discussing Grotowski’s Apocalypsis cum Figuris, after which Polish right-wing circles saw him as a charlatan and blasphemer. Includes a quote explaining the format of the work, with has “almost no literary script” to speak of.

Excellent first-hand account of Grotowski’s working methods and his production Apocalypsis cum Figuris.

Jerzy Grotwoski Poor Theatre
Jerzy Grotowski (b.1933 – d.1999)

Academic Papers and Journal Articles

An academic paper outlining the differing uses of a mask in modern theatre. Search for “Jerzy Grotowski: The Mask as Essence” to read an interesting section on Grotowski’s notion of the actor’s “mask” and the demands it placed on the actor.

Training at Teatr-Laboratorium, 1972
Grotowski’s training exercises at Odin Teatret, Denmark 1972.

Very informative Ph.D thesis which includes a chapter on Grotowski’s work on actor impulse and movement, clearly outlining the different phases of Grotowski’s career (PDF download).

Academic journal article examining the different phases of Grotowski’s work over the years.

Ph.D thesis on the work of Jerzy Grotowski and the many phases of his actor training process over several decades.

An interesting paper exploring the changing political landscape while Grotowski worked in Poland.

An excellent academic paper exploring Grotowski’s concept of poor theatre, the holy actor, use of montage, score and actor contact.

Jerzy Grotowski at Odin Teatret 1971
Jerzy Grotowski at Odin Teatret, Denmark, 1971. Original 16mm film, no sound.

An academic study exploring Grotowski’s methods with pre-adolescent children.

An academic paper exploring how several Western theatre practitioners were influenced by the Oriental gestures used in Peking Opera, including Grotowski.

PowerPoint presentation on Grotowski’s life and works. Includes diagrams of actor-audience configurations for productions during his poor theatre phase.

Poor Theatre Performance

Academic thesis on Grotowski’s work from a South African perspective. Includes very useful explanations of what Grotowski’s corporeal and plastique exercises entailed, his voice and breathing training, plus the major phases in his career.

Academic journal article exploring Grotowski’s evolving influence in Poland to this day.

Academic paper which includes a chapter outlining the similarities and differences between the work of Jerzy Grotowski and that of Antonin Artaud.

Lesson Plans

Introduction to Grotowski includes a series of actor exercises using his techniques on movement, physical actions and plastiques.

Article with tips on how to bring Grotowski into your drama lessons – includes exercises.

Useful PowerPoint presentations on Grotowski’s principles.

Robin Hood 1- Off Balance, International Devising Theatre Company
Grotowski’s influence evident in other theatre.


Theatre review of Grotowski’s productions Akropolis and Apocalypsis cum Figuris during his Polish Laboratory Theatre’s visit to New York City in 1969. The audience was limited to just 40 people.

Teatr TV J. Grotowski - Laboratorium - Apocalypsis Cum Figuris_1_1
Grotowski’s final work Apocalypsis cum Figuris. Rehearsals ran for more than a year.

The New York Times review of Grotowski’s The Constant Prince, October 1969.

Time Magazine’s theatre review of the 1969 production of Grotowski’s The Constant Prince in New York City.

Grotowski’s adaptation of Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus. Notice the seating arrangement.

Key Reference Texts

  • Grotowski, J, Towards a Poor Theatre (includes exercises).
  • Schechner, R, The Grotowski Sourcebook.
  • Slowiak, J, and Cuesta, J, Jerzy GrotowskiRoutledge Performance Practitioners (includes exercises).
  • Allain, P (Ed.), Grotowski’s Empty Room.
  • Cynkutis, Z, Acting with Grotowski.
  • Richards, T., At Work with Grotowski on Physical Actions.
  • Mitter, S, Systems of Rehearsal: Stanislavsky, Brecht, Grotowski and Brook.

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